In this example, we will illustrate how to sort by color.
1- Click on any cell inside the data set.
2- On the Data tab, click on Sort in the Sort & Filter section.
Short key alert: Press Alt + A + SS to do the same.
2- On the appeared box, Sort by date column (or any other), Sort on Cell color and select green color first.
3- Click on Add Level two times and select remaining colors.
4- Result. Excel will sort data by color.
For more detail, visit Microsoft Office website.