Structure and Function of the Golgi Apparatus
Golgi apparatus also known as Golgi bodies or Golgi complex is the membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. They are made up of a series of flattened and stacked pouches called cisternae. Generally, they are made up of four to eight cisternae and these cisternae are held close to each other with the help of matrix proteins. However, as much as sixty cisternae are observed by scientists in some species. The whole Golgi complex is supported by microtubules of the cytoplasm.
There are three main parts of the Golgi apparatus which are; cis (the part which is near the endoplasmic reticulum), Golgi stacks (central layers) and trans (the part which is far from ER and near the plasma membrane). Cis-Golgi apparatus is the point of the organelle where substances sent by the ER enter into Golgi apparatus for processing. Trans-Golgi apparatus is that part from where those substances exit in the form of small vesicles. Proteins, phospholipids, carbohydrates and other molecules which are made in the ER are sent to the Golgi complex where they are biochemically modified. In addition to modification, the Golgi complex itself produces some macromolecules such as polysaccharides. The products which the Golgi complex exports fuse with the plasma membrane.
The main duties of the Golgi bodies include modification, sorting, and packaging of macromolecules like proteins and lipids made by the endoplasmic reticulum. They also transport lipids throughout the cell and creates lysosomes.