Both animal and plant cells are eukaryotic cells. However, structurally both types of cells have many similarities and dissimilarities. Both cells have a true nucleus, which is separated from other cellular organelles by a nuclear membrane. Both cells divide and reproduce through similar processes (mitosis and meiosis). Both cells obtain the energy they need to grow and survive through the process of respiration. Animal and plant cells have many cellular components in common which include a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton. The comparison of animal vs plant cell is given below.
Animal Vs Plant Cell
Animal and plant cells differ in size. Animal cells are usually smaller than plant cells.
Plant cells are mostly similar in shape, rectangular or cube-shaped but animal cells are of various shapes.
Plant cells have a rigid cell wall made up of cellulose while animal cells do not possess a cell wall they only possess a cell membrane. While plant cells have both.
In plants, almost all cells are capable of differentiation while in the case of plant cells only stem cells can differentiate into different types of cells.
Animal cells store the energy in the form of glycogen, a complex carbohydrate. While plant cells store the energy in the form of starch.
There are 20 types of essential amino acids which we need to produce proteins. Out of those 20, animals can produce only 10, the remaining amino acids are acquired through diet, as, plants can produce all 20 amino acids.
Animals cells don’t have glyoxisomes while plant cells possess these structures. Glyoxysomes are found mostly in germinating seeds, where they help in lipid breakdown for energy production.
Animal cells have lysosomes which help in digestion of cellular macromolecules while they are rarely found in plant cells. In plant cells, cellular degradation is controlled by vacuoles.
Plant cells possess a single large central vacuole which covers almost 90% of the total cell volume, while animal cells have many small vacuoles.
There are no plastids found in animal cells, while plant cells contain plastids like chloroplasts, which they require for photosynthesis.
Some animal cells may possess cilia but plant cells do not. Cilia aid in locomotion in some unicellular organisms.